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For example, if one realization of a stellar population with a total mass of 20 stochasticity.When stochastic sampling is important, the distribution of luminosities can be both very broad and highly asymmetric, and so it becomes important to know the shape of the luminosity distribution as well as its mean.

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Violation of this last condition leads to stochastic variations in the photometric properties, but these codes are not designed to fully capture them.

One of the more significant manifestations of sampling stochasticity is the apparent undersampling of the upper end of the IMF.

Since the IMF is steeply declining with increasing stellar mass, it is improbable that a low-mass population will contain a massive star.

In this section we present a discussion of the various effects of stochasticity and the regimes in which they are important.

The standard procedure for calculating the luminosity from a coeval population of stars used by the most popular implementations (such as SB99) is as follows (Tinsley 1980; Scalo 1986).