Who is jen brill dating Namibia sex chat free mobile download

31 Dec

Meanwhile, more popular, organized forms of “religious Taoism” or Tao-chiao were emerging in the late Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE) and subsequent Wei-Chin era, based on the Lao-tzu, Chuang-tzu, et al., but more strongly patterned after the activity of the court magicians (fang-shih), involving shamanic, yogic, spiritualist and magic practices.

(Henri Maspero and Izutsu think some of these practices pre-dated Chuang-tzu and Lao-tzu in the southern Ch’u state.) The earliest and most prominent of these religious Taoist schools were the theocratic, liturgical, magical Meng-wei Heavenly Master Taoism (also known as Wu-tou-mi “Five Pecks of Rice” Taoism), founded in the mid-2nd century CE by the long-lived Chang Tao-ling and his son and grandson, later headquartered on Lung-hu Shan/Mountain in Kiangsi province; T’ai-p’ing Supreme Peace Taoism, founded by Chang Chüeh in 2nd century, based on repentance of sins, healing ceremonies and the book on commanding spirits miraculously gotten by the semi-legendary Yò Chi; the equally popular Ling-pao Magic Jewel Taoism (4th/5th century CE, liturgical, influenced by Buddhism, emphasizes fasting and reliance on celestial deities), founded by Ko-hsòan, Hsu Ling-ch’i, et al; and Shang-ch’ing Highest Purity Taoism (elite, monastic, meditative, and mystical, based especially on Chuang-tzu and the Yellow Court Canon), founded in 370 CE by Yang Hsi and the two Hsu’s, father and son, atop Mao Shan (near Nanjing).

Through the Sui-Tang dynastic era (581-905), when Taoism flourished under state patronage, other religious Taoist schools emerged, focusing on repentance, healing, invoking of spirits, use of talismans, magical formulae, etc.

A few scholars feel the Tao Te Ching to be the work of several writers, but scholars Izutsu, Karlgren, Ellen Chen, et al.

This Northern Ch’üan-chen Taoism, headquartered at Pai-yün Kuan (“Monastery of the White Clouds,” built in 739 CE) in Beijing, is still being practiced in many parts of China today, from the cities to the mountains, and is becoming well-known in the West through the translations of many works by Thomas Cleary.

(See also Bill Porter/Red Pine’s book on Taoist hermits.) Japanese and Communist Chinese forces destroyed much of Taoism in China in the 1930s and 1940s, but it survived and flourished in Taiwan and, to some extent, in Hong Kong.

Our knowledge of the ancient Chinese spirituality known as Taoism begins with two texts, the Lao-tzu or Tao Te Ching (“Book of the Tao/Way and Its Power”; Pinyin transliteration renders this Dao De Jing) and the Chuang-tzu (Zhuangzi) both named after famous sages.

Considerable excerpts from both works can be read here (click on link).